Relaton

Relaton model -- Relations

Categories of document relations in Relaton

Document relations

General

  • Source: ISO 690, Clause 4.3

  • Serialisation: bibitem/relation

The model allows for various relations between bibliographic items, with one related item embedded within the other.

Relation types

bibitem/relation/@type gives the base class of the relation between two bibliographic items.

The base class of relation types is taken from ISO 690 and Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), and represents generic bibliographical requirements, particularly inclusion in a host item (Host Item: includedIn, includes) and translation (Translation: translatedFrom, hasTranslation). The class has been expanded substantially to deal with the requirements of standards documents.

In addition, the class has also been designed for extensibility: refinements to the base class can be expressed through bibitem/relation/description, with the understanding that the relation described in that element is a subset of the relation named in bibitem/relation/@type. Relations can be modelled in a hierarchical fashion, and we attempt to do so in the following; but relations are kept in @type, rather than moved to description, if they are commonplace.

The modelling of relation types draws on the four basic classes of bibliographic entity modelled in FRBR:

  • Work: a distinct intellectual or artistic creation

  • Expression: a realisation of a Work (e.g. edition, adaptation)

  • Manifestation: the physical embodiment of an Expression (e.g. print run; audio vs online vs print)

  • Item: a single exemplar of a Manifestation

All relations in the following are given with their inverse in italics and brackets, unless the relation is symmetric.

Part-Whole relations

includes

document A includes document B, through a well-defined relation outlined in Host Item, and with distinct metadata (including authorship) and bibliographic record (e.g. Chapter in Edited Work, Illustration) (includedIn)

hasPart

document A includes document B, with no distinct metadata (other than extent) or bibliographic record, and all items in document B share the same authorship or corporate authorship (e.g. Chapter, Section, Part, Volume, Issue, Track) (partOf)

merges

document A results from a merger of earlier documents B1, B2, B3…​ (mergedInto)

splits

document A1, A2, A3…​ is split off from earlier documents B (splitInto)

FRBR Level relations

In the following, document A is typically an Expression, since expressions are typically what get their own bibliographic entry in catalogues and databases.

Relations in the following are subclassed: this is indicated by indentation.

instanceOf

document B is an instance of document A (e.g. an edition, a format, a single copy: agnostic as to whether B is an Expression, Manifestation, or Item) (hasInstance)

exemplarOf

document B is an Item of document A (hasExemplar)

manifestationOf

document B is a Manifestation of document A (hasManifestation)

reproductionOf

document B is a Manifestation of the same Expression as document A (reproduction) (hasReproduction)

reprintOf

document B is a reproduction of document A, involving a new publisher or distributor and mass dissemination, and no overriding concern with reproducing the source manifestation precisely (not necessarily restricted to print media) (hasReprint)

expressionOf

document B is an Expression of document A (hasExpression)

translatedFrom

document B is an Expression of document A in a different language than the source Expression of A (translation). This includes dubbed and subtitled versions of a film. (hasTranslation)

arrangementOf

document B is an Expression of musical work A for different instruments or voices than the source Expression of A (arrangement). This includes adding parts or an accompaniment (hasArrangement)

abridgementOf

document B is an Expression of document A that is significantly shortened in extent relative to the source Expression of A (abridgement) (hasAbridgement)

annotationOf

document B is an Expression of document A that incorporates added explanatory notes not present in the source Expression of A (annotation). The annotation still substantially includes the original text of document A (hasAnnotation)

Revision relations

FRBR uses Revision to refer to the updating of the content of a source Expression to form a new Expression, in ways that do not involve changing language (translation), instrumentation (arrangement), or extent (abridgement, annotation). So a Revision updates the content of an Expression, but is not a new Abridgement, Translation, Arrangement, or Annotation; an Abridgement, Translation, Arrangement, or Annotation can be based on a specific Revision; and an Abridgement, Translation, Arrangement, or Annotation can have multiple Revisions of their own.

Revision includes not only an author updating the content of their own work, but a third party updating that content, often after the author has deceased (indicated bibliographically as "Revised by") It also includes a scholar reconstructing the author’s text on the basis of available evidence, including previous editions where available (indicated bibliographically as "Edited by"; hence we can distinguish Cox’s, Edmond’s, Lobel & Page’s and Voigt’s editions of Sappho, all done in the 20th century). Annotation is most commonly seen in the contxt of such scholarly editions, so annotationOf should be reserved for cases where the Expression does not provide its own version of the textual content of the Work it is annotating. This is somewhat rare, and FRBR does not model annotations as distinct from revisions.

draftOf

document B is an unpublished revision of document A, which precedes its publication; it may also be the first, unpublished expression of document A. Document A may be a Work or an Expression (e.g. a draft may be specific to an edition or translation) (hasDraft)

editionOf

document B is a published revision of document A, or the first published Expression of document A. A is a Work, or else A is an Expression with the same language, instrumentation, and substantially the same extent as B (i.e. translations, arrangements, abridgements, annotations can have editions; editions cannot have editions). (hasEdition)

updates

document B is an edition of the same Work as document A, and is subsequent to document A; A is an Expression (updatedBy)

Note
Documents often have notions of corrections and other minor adjustments to content, which are not modelled bibliographically as distinct editions. This distinction or lack of distinction is captured in Relaton through the edition element; the hasEdition relation still applies to such minor variants of the text, whether they are considered distinct editions or not.

Derived relations:

In the following, the two related items belong to distinct works, but the creation of B is determined in some way by A.

derivedFrom

document A is derived from document B; includes classes not otherwise specified, such as parodies (derives)

describes

document A is a description of document B (describedBy)

catalogues

document A is a catalogue including a description of document B (cataloguedBy)

hasSuccessor

document A is succeeded by document B in a sequence; includes sequels, and continuations of journals (successorOf)

adaptedFrom

document A is a reworking of document B to make it suitable for a different audience (FRBR Adaptation: includes paraphrase, free translation, musical variations) or medium (FRBR Transformation: includes dramatisation, novelisation, versification, screenplay) (hasAdaptation)

adoptedFrom

document A is adopted by a standards organisation from document B by a different organisation. (These are potentially the same content, but they have institutional authorship and application; this kind of appropriation of text is not characteristic of literary works.) (adoptedAs)

reviewOf

document A is a review of document B (hasReview)

commentaryOf

document A is a commentary on document B, but does not include substantial text from document B, unlike an annotation. (This distinction is a judgement call; commentaries and annotations are not discussed in FRBR, but see immediately below) (hasCommentary)

The distinction between distinct works and expressions of the same work is subtle, and can vary culturally. Its major consequence is whether the creator of the derived work is considered a secondary author, and the derived work is still attributed to the original author (in which case it is an Expression), or a primary author, supplanting the original author (in which case it is a new Work). The differentiation made in FRBR (3.2.1) is:

For the purposes of this study variant texts incorporating revisions or updates to an earlier text are viewed simply as expressions of the same work (i.e., the variant texts are not viewed as separate works). Similarly, abridgements or enlargements of an existing text, or the addition of parts or an accompaniment to a musical composition are considered to be different expressions of the same work. Translations from one language to another, musical transcriptions and arrangements, and dubbed or subtitled versions of a film are also considered simply as different expressions of the same original work.

By contrast, when the modification of a work involves a significant degree of independent intellectual or artistic effort, the result is viewed, for the purpose of this study, as a new work. Thus paraphrases, rewritings, adaptations for children, parodies, musical variations on a theme and free transcriptions of a musical composition are considered to represent new works. Similarly, adaptations of a work from one literary or art form to another (e.g., dramatizations, adaptations from one medium of the graphic arts to another, etc.) are considered to represent new works. Abstracts, digests and summaries are also considered to represent new works.

Other relations:

related

document A is related to document B in an otherwise unspecified fashion

complements

document A is a complement or supplement of document B (e.g. concordance, teacher’s guide, gloss, addendum, appendix, libretto, incidental music) (complementOf)

obsoletes

document A supersedes document B, being applicable or valid in more or newer domains than document B (the two documents are not necessarily Expressions of the same Work) (obsoletedBy)

cites

document A cites document B (isCitedIn)

The following relations are treated as refinements, and are expressed in bibitem/relation/description. The refinements a relation type can undergo are open-ended, and this list may be expanded in the future to encourage interoperability.

  • updates/updatedBy *

    corrects

    document A updates document B, and the change does not affect the intended meaning (correctedBy)

    amends

    document A updates document B, and the change is a minor change to the intended meaning (amendedBy)

    revises

    document A updates document B, and the change is a major change to the intended meaning (revisedBy)

  • adoptedFrom/adoptedAs *

    identical

    document A is adopted from document B, without any change

    equivalent

    document A is adopted from document B, without any significant textual change

    nonequivalent

    document A is adopted from document B, and has been altered textually significantly

  • reproductionOf/hasReproduction

    facsimile

    document A is a reproduction of two-dimensional document B (e.g. book, manuscript), which prioritises visual accuracy

    replica

    document A is a reproduction of three-dimensional or pictorial document B (e.g. sculpture, oil painting), which prioritises visual and tactile accuracy

Comparison with other bibliographic relations lists

The Relaton relations are compared with those in FRBR, BIBFRAME, BIBO, and Dublin Core. (The directionality of corresponding relations is ignored.)

Relaton FRBR BIBFRAME BIBO DC

includes

hasPart (independent)

partOf, hasSeries, hasSubseries

hasPart

hasPart

hasPart (dependent)

partOf

hasPart

splits

is a reconfiguration of (Item only)

splitInto, separatedFrom

merges

is a reconfiguration of (Item only)

mergerOf, absorbed

instanceOf

exemplarOf

is exemplified by

itemOf

manifestationOf

is embodied in

instanceOf

hasFormat

reproductionOf

is a reproduction of, is an alternate to

reproductionOf

reproducedIn

reprintOf

is a reproduction of

expressionOf

is realised through

expressionOf

hasVersion

expressionOf (as catchall)

transcriptOf

translatedFrom

is a translation of

translationOf

translationOf

arrangementOf

is an arrangement of

abridgementOf

is an abridgement of

annotationOf

draftOf

is a revision of

editionOf

is a revision of

updates

is a revision of

derivedFrom

derivativeOf, originalVersion

source

derivedFrom (as catchall)

is a summary of, is an imitation of

describedBy

annotates

description, abstract, tableOfContents

hasSuccessor

is a successor to

precededBy, continues, continuesInPart

adaptedFrom

is an adaptation of, is a transformation of

adoptedFrom

reviewOf

reviewOf

commentaryOf

related

relatedTo

relation

related (as catchall)

dataSource

conformsTo

complements

complements, supplements

accompanies, supplementTo, indexOf, findingAidOf

requires

supersedes

replacementOf

affirmedBy (legal), reversedBy (legal), subsequentLegalDecision (legal)

replaces

cites

references

cites

references

Localities

The relation between two bibliographic items may not apply to either the first ("source") item, or the second ("target") item, in their entirety. For that reason, the relation may also specify one more more localities in the target item (localityStack), and one or more localities in the source item (sourceLocalityStack), as constraining the relation.

For example, the following expresses that Chapter 3 of the first edition of Telescopy has been superseded by Chapters 4 and 7 of the second edition.

<bibitem type="book">
  <title>Telescopy</title>
  <edition>1</edition>
  <relation type="obsoletedBy">
    <bibitem type="book">
      <title>Telescopy</title>
      <edition>2</edition>
    </bibitem>
    <sourceLocalityStack>
      <sourceLocality type="chapter"><referenceFrom>3</referenceFrom></sourceLocality>
    </sourceLocalityStack>
    <localityStack>
      <locality type="chapter"><referenceFrom>4</referenceFrom></locality>
      <locality type="chapter"><referenceFrom>7</referenceFrom></locality>
    </localityStack>
  </relation>
</bibitem>

Host Item

Of the bibliographic types identified in [bibtype], incollection, inproceedings, and inbook are all inherently related to a host item. Other types also potentially involve relations with host items; for example, the relation between a record track and a record, or a broadcast segment and a broadcast show. The relation between host item and contained item is modelled through includedIn or partOf, depending on whether all included items share authorship or corporate authorship.

The relation between any two items optionally includes a locality element, which indicates which part of the first item is related to the second. (For example, which part of the first item is superseded by the second.) The locality in the relation element can be used with "includedIn" relations, to indicate the extent of the contained item within the host item; but for consistency, it is preferable to use the extent element in the contained item, which has the same meaning.

The expected relations between host and contained items are as follows:

Host Contained Relation

book, booklet, manual, techreport

incollection (if has its own title—autonomous item)

includedIn

book, booklet, manual, techreport

inbook (if it does not have its own title, e.g. numbered chapter, page span)

partOf

journal

article

includedIn

proceedings, conference

inproceedings

includedIn

thesis, standard, patent

inbook

partOf

map

map

partOf (atlas) or includedIn (collection)

electronic resource

electronic resource

partOf (multipart work) or includedIn (collection)

broadcast

broadcast (treated as same corporate author)

partOf

music

music (typically involves same author)

partOf

graphic work

graphic work

partOf (multipart work) or includedIn (collection)

film

film (typically involves same author)

partOf

video

video (typically involves same author)

partOf

In general: text-based resources have components that can be considered a different kind of resource; components of non-textual resources are considered to be of the same type as their host.

Ramsey, J. K., & McGrew, W. C. (2005). Object play in great apes: Studies in nature and captivity. In A. D. Pellegrini & P. K. Smith (Eds.), The nature of play: Great apes and humans (pp. 89-112). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

<bibitem type="incollection">
  <title>Object play in great apes: Studies in nature and captivity</title>
  <date type="published"><on>2005</on></date>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <surname>Ramsey</surname>
        <initials>J. K.</initials>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <surname>McGrew</surname>
        <initials>W. C.</initials>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <relation type="includedIn">
    <bibitem>
      <title>The nature of play: Great apes and humans</title>
      <contributor>
        <role type="editor"/>
        <person>
          <name>
            <surname>Pellegrini</surname>
            <initials>A. D.</initials>
          </name>
        </person>
      </contributor>
      <contributor>
        <role type="editor"/>
        <person>
          <name>
            <surname>Smith</surname>
            <initials>P. K.</initials>
          </name>
        </person>
      </contributor>
      <contributor>
        <role type="publisher"/>
        <organization>
          <name>Guilford Press</name>
        </organization>
      </contributor>
      <place>New York, NY</place>
    </bibitem>
  </relation>
  <extent type="page">
    <referenceFrom>89</referenceFrom>
    <referenceTo>112</referenceTo>
  </extent>
</bibitem>

Sigur Rós. Untitled [Vaka]. In: ( ) [compact disc]. Track 1. Mosfellsbær: Sundlaugin, 2002.

<bibitem type="music">
  <title>Untitled</title>
  <title type="unofficial">Vaka</title>
  <date type="published"><on>2002</on></date>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author">composer</role>
    <organization><name>Sigur Rós</name></organization>
  </contributor>
  <medium>
    <form>compact disc</form>
  </medium>
  <relation type="partOf">
    <bibitem>
      <title>( )</title>
      <contributor>
        <role type="author">composer</role>
        <organization><name>Sigur Rós</name></organization>
      </contributor>
      <contributor>
        <role type="publisher"/>
        <organization><name>Sundlaugin</name></organization>
      </contributor>
      <place>Mosfellsbær, Iceland</place>
    </bibitem>
  </relation>
  <extent type="track">
    <referenceFrom>1</referenceFrom>
  </extent>
</bibitem>

Translation

Translations are items derived from an item in a different language. Typically in bibliographies, the details of the source item are not provided for a translation, outside of the original author, and possibly the date of publication and the source language title of the original title. If the information about the source item is limited to these, no relation need be invoked in the title: the source title can be modelled as an original title variant ([alt-title]); the author differentiated from the translator as creators ([creator-selection]); and the date of authorship differentiated from the date of translation ([date]: date[@type = "created"] vs date[@type = "adapted"]).

However, if any further details of the source item need to be provided (e.g. source language: ISO 690, Clause 4.11), they should be modelled through an overt relationship between the source item and the translation.

PRUS, Bolesław. 1912 [1895–1896]. La Faraono [Faraon]. Translated by Kabe (pseud. of Kazimierz BEIN). 2nd revised edition. Paris: Hachette.

Single work representation:

<bibitem type="book">
  <title lang="eo">La Faraono</title>
  <title type="original" lang="pl">Faraon</title>
  <date type="created"><from>1895</from><to>1896</to></date>
  <date type="adapted"><on>1907</on></date>
  <date type="published"><on>1912</on></date>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <surname>Prus</surname>
        <forename>Bolesław</forename>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="translator"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <completename>Kabe</completename>
        <note>pseud. of Kazimierz Bein</note>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="publisher"/>
    <organization>
      <name>Hachette</name>
    </organization>
  </contributor>
  <edition>2nd revised edition</edition>
  <language>eo</language>
  <place>Paris</place>
</bibitem>

Related work representation:

<bibitem type="book">
  <title lang="eo">La Faraono</title>
  <date type="adapted"><on>1907</on></date>
  <date type="published"><on>1912</on></date>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <surname>Prus</surname>
        <forename>Bolesław</forename>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="translator"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <completename>Kabe</completename>
        <note>pseud. of Kazimierz Bein</note>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="publisher"/>
    <organization>
      <name>Hachette</name>
    </organization>
  </contributor>
  <edition>2nd revised edition</edition>
  <language>eo</language>
  <relation type="translatedFrom">
    <title type="original" lang="pl">Faraon</title>
    <date type="created"><from>1894</from><to>1895</to></date>
    <date type="published"><from>1895</from><to>1896</to></date>
    <contributor>
     <role type="author"/>
     <person>
       <name>
         <surname>Prus</surname>
         <forename>Bolesław</forename>
       </name>
     </person>
    </contributor>
    <contributor>
      <role type="publisher"/>
      <organization>
        <name>Tygodnik Ilustrowany</name>
      </organization>
    </contributor>
    <language>pl</language>
    <place>Warsaw</place>
  </relation>
  <place>Paris</place>
</bibitem>

Demosthenes. Speeches 50-59. Translated from the Greek by Victor BERS. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003.

<bibitem type="book">
  <title>Speeches 50-59</title>
  <date type="published"><on>2003</on></date>
  <contributor>
    <role type="author"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <completename>Demosthenes</completename>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="translator"/>
    <person>
      <name>
        <surname>Bers</surname>
        <initials>Victor</initials>
      </name>
    </person>
  </contributor>
  <contributor>
    <role type="publisher"/>
    <organization>
      <name>University of Texas Press</name>
    </organization>
  </contributor>
  <language>en</language>
  <relation type="translatedFrom">
    <bibitem>
      <title>Speeches 50-59</title>
      <language>grc</language>
    </bibitem>
  </relation>
  <place>Austin</place>
</bibitem>